The most likely types of damage to exposed general cargo are
pre-shipment damage due to rough handling or unprotected storage ashore
physical damage due to rough handling during loading or discharging
physical damage due to inappropriate stowage and/or insufficient lashing
wet damage before, during loading and during the voyage due to defective
hatch covers and gaskets
heating damage due to insufficient storage ashore with resulting excessive
– temperatures during loading
– fat content prior to loading
heating damage due to storage of cargo on heated tanks.
Bagged cargo is likely to suffer damage
during loading and discharge by
– handling with hooks
– contamination by foreign matter
– moisture from rain or snowfall
– high moisture content of the air in the cargo hold
– use of stained, wet or contaminated dunnage
during the voyage by
– inadequate stowage and/or insufficient lashing or securing causing a
shift or collapse of the stow
– wetting either due to defective hatch covers and gaskets or vessel’s
– moisture from the ship or cargo sweat due to improper/insufficient ventilation.
If bagged cargo becomes mouldy due to moisture ingress, some countries may
deny discharge of the entire cargo and reject the same due to health and sanitary
fears. Huge cargo claims may arise for non-delivery and the disposal of the
rejected cargo incurs considerable costs.
All these types of damage are likely to result in claims by cargo interests
against the Company and, subsequently, the P&I insurer.
Claims for shortage of bagged cargo are likely to be the result of improper
and/or inaccurate tallies as well as pilferage.
Heavy items of cargo may shift during the voyage if not properly lashed, chocked
or otherwise secured.