Average Expense Ratio (AER) P&I
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In accordance with Schedule 3 of the International Group Agreement 1999 the group is required to disclose the AER for the group's P&I business for the five years ended 20 February 2018. The ratio of 11.21 per cent (12.02 per cent last year) has been calculated in accordance with the Schedule and the guidelines issued by the International Group and is consistent with the relevant financial statements.

The five year AER for the group's P&I business expresses the operating costs on a consolidated basis as a percentage of the relevant premiums and investment income earned. Operating costs of the P&I business exclude all claims handling costs. Investment income earned is stated after deducting all investment management costs. Internal claims handling and internal investment management costs include a reasonable allocation for general overhead expenses.